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张挹兰: 与李大钊一同赴死的女英烈

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    tashiyiweibaoshoufengjianshehuiguojiao、jinducuicanderuonvzi,queyeshiyiweiweigemingjueranfusidenvyingxiong。

    1927nian4yue28ri,zhuzhounvzizhangyilanhelidazhaodengershiweigemingzhezaibeijingxijiaominxiangjingshikanshousuonei,beifengxijunfazhangzuolinmimijiaosha。90nianguoqu,dangwomenzaicixianqilishidechenai,yiranduizheiweinianqingmeilidenvrenchongmanjingpeihehuainian。

    zhangyilan,1893nianchunchushengzaihunanshenglilingxianxixiangyigemeiluode“shuxiangzhijia”。tayuanminglanxiu,hanyou“lanzhu”、buxuzaishengnvhaizideyisi,houlaizijigaimingweizhangyilan。tazaitongbeizhongnianlingzuida,haiyousandiermei。

    zhangyilandezufushiqianqingxiucai,zaijiaxiangbanleyisuosishu。zaizhongnanqingnvdefengjianlijiaoshufuxia,funvbeiboduoleshangxuedushudequanli。congminghaoxuedezhangyilanduizheizhongbupingdengdaiyushenetongjue。zufuzaitadebaibanyaoqiuxia,jiuzaisishufangxuehoujiaotadushu。houlai,yinzumujianjuefandui,zufuyejiubuzaijixujiaoxiaoyilan。yihou,zhangyilanjiutoutouzixue,zuizhongxuehuilexiezi。zufuqushishi,ta10suigangchutou,queyijingnengjiezhuzidian,yuedujiaoshendeguwenle。jingguojianchibuxiedinuli,zhangyilanchengleyigenengxiehuisuandeguniang,dajiadouchengtashige“nvxiucai”。zaizhangyilanshiqibasuideshihou,tayoujiatingbaoban,jiajiledangdideyiweixinglongdenongmin。youyutadezhangfushigezhonghoushanliangderen,hunhoushenghuohaisuanhexie。

恒峰app    1915nianchuntian,dangdifashengleyichangyanzhongdewenyi,zhangyilanxinaideerzibeibingmoduoquleshengming。turansangzi,shitazaijingshenshangshoudaolechenzhongdedaji。weilepaijiexinzhongdebeitong,talikailongjiadaoxianchengnvzixiaoxuequdushu。dangshizhengzhixinhaigemingzhihou,feichukeju,tichangxinxue,zaixinbande“yangxuetang”li,zhangyilankaishijieshoulekexuezhishi,kaikuoleyanjie。tazaixianlixiaoxuezhizhuduleyinian,bianbeilongjiadeqinqiqingqudangjiatingjiaoshi。zhangyilanduijiaoxuerenzhenfuze,chengjixianzhu,yuanjinwenming,laitazheilijiududexueshengyurijuzeng。

    

恒峰app    wusiyundongqianxi,shouxinchaoliudeyingxiang,zhangyilantanqiuzhishideyuwanggengjiaqianglie。taxianglongjiatichudaobeijingqiuxueshenzaodeyaoqiu,dedaolelongjiazhangbeidezhichi,youlongshizucitigongjizhangyilanmeinian150yuandexuefei。1919nianqiu,talikaihunandaobeijingshangxue,kaishizoushanglexindedaolu。

    yikaishi,zhangyilanzaibeijingyijiasilibuxixuexiaoxuexi。tadeshenghuojiankuposu,yiniansijidouchuanzheyishenhuibuguaziheheiqunzi,zaitongxuezhongyuzhongbutong,dantaquemanbuzaihu。jingguobannianduodebuxi,zhangyilankaoqulebeijingnvzishifandaxueyuke,zhuxiaogongduleyinian。dangshi,wusiyundongsuojiqidefandi、fanfengjiandesichao,zaiquanguorenmintebieshiqingnianrendangzhongyouhendayingxiang。bujiu,zhangyilanmeifudetangmeilixinshuyinbumanfengjianbaobanhunyin,congzhangshataohunlaidaobeijing。lixinshushihunanwusiyundongdejijifenzi,taxiangzhangyilanjieshaolezaizhangshafadongxuechao、tongjunfazhengfudouzhengdeqingkuang,zhangyilantingleyichangjidong,duiqingnianxueshengdeaiguoxingdongshifenqinpei。

        1922nian,zhangyilankaorubeijingdaxueyuke。weileweichixueye,tabangongbandu,dangguojiatingjiaoshi,zuoguochaoxiegongzuo。zaibeidayukexuexiqijian,tajizhichitalaijingshengxuedeyiweilongjiazhangbeiyongbaihuawenxiexin,bingxiebaihuashijitazhushou。zheiweishoujiudelaofuzidaweizhennu,longshizucijizhangyilandexuefeiyeyincibeiquxiaole。houlai,zhangyilanyinchengjiyouyi,huodemeiguojiaoyujiakelanfurenjuanzhudemeiyue15yuandejiangxuejin,zheicaiduguolenanguan。

    1924nianbeidayukebiyehou,tashengrubeidajiaoyuxixuexi。

    

恒峰app    1925nian4yue,zhangyilanjiaru“zhongshanzhuyishijianshe”bingcanjiaguomindang,bujiubeixuanweishijianshelishi。“zhongshanzhuyishijianshe”shiyigeguomindangzuopaishilijiaodadegemingtuanti,tamingquetichuleshijianxindesanminzhuyi、fengxingsandazhengce、tonggongchandanghezuo、canjiafanduidiguozhuyihefengjianzhuyiyundongdengzhuzhang。zheishizhangyilancanjiafandifanfengjiandouzhengdekaishi。zheishihoutayirenshidao,zijiguoqudejiaoyujiuguohefunvjiefangdelixiang,meiyouzhengquedezhengzhisixiangzuozhidao,danpinggerenfendoushibuhuichenggongde。

恒峰app    1926niansanyibacananhou,beijinglongzhaozaiyipianbaisekongbuzhizhong。yilidazhaoweishoudezhonggongbeifangqudangweidelingdaojiguanzhuanrudixia。weibaocungemingliliang,jixukaizhangongzuo,3yuedi,youzhongguogongchandanglingdaodeguogonghezuozuzhi——guomindangbeijingzhixingbuhebeijingtebieshidangbu,youcuihuahutong8haobandaodongjiaominxiangsuliandashiguanxiyuanjiueguobingyingbangong。4yue,beijingtebieshidangbuzaicijinxinggaizu,zhangyilandangxuanweizhixingweiyuan。weilejinyibukaizhanfunvyundong,guomindangbeijingtebieshidangbujuedingzaibeijingbanyigefunvkanwu《funvzhiyou》heyisuozhiyexuexiaomanyunnvxiao,zuoweifunvyundongdezhendi。1926nian9yue,zhangyilandanren《funvzhiyou》zhubian,yougongchandangzhipaihanguiqindanrenfuzhubian。funvzhiyoushehemanyunnvxiaozaixichengbaozijie49hao。zheigedifangbuda,shiyouliangjinsiheyuanzucheng,qianyuanshimanyunnvxiao,yousiwushigexueshengzaidongxifangshangke。houyuanshifunvzhiyoushe,funvgongzuodelianluo、jihuidengyezaihouyuan,beijinggedayuanxiaodenvshengchangdaozheililaihuodong。

恒峰app    《funvzhiyou》cong1926nian9yuechuangkan,zhidao1927nian4yuelidazhao、guolongzhen、zhangyilandengbeibu,manyunnvxiaobeichafeng,caibeipotingkan,xianhoufaxing12qi。zhonggongtongguo《funvzhiyou》zheikuaiyuandi,huanqilezaiheianzhongshenyinzhengzha、renshoutongkudefunv,shitamencongchenjizhongjuexing,tuanjieqilai,youzuzhi、youlingdaodiyongjitililiang,chongpoyiqieheian,xiangzheguangmingdeqiantumaijin。zhangyilanchuledanfufanzhongdezoufang、zugao、shengaorenwuwai,haiqinzizhuangao,lunshufunvyundongdelishihexianzhuang。qizhong,taxiede《funvyundongshulve》yiwen,beikanyu《funvzhiyou》dibaqi,《xinfunvdeshiming》kanyudijiuqi。zheiliangpianwenzhangfanyinglezhangyilanduifunvyundongdezhengquerenshiheshenkejianjie。tashuo: womenfunv“suochudehuanjingshishouerzhongyapode,yifangmianshoulieqiangdiguozhuyizhedeyapo,yifangmianshouzhongnanqingnvfengjiansixiangdeyapo。diyizhongyaposhiquantizhongguorenminsuogongtongde,dierzhongyaposhiwomennvziduyoude”。jiyuzhongguofunvsuochudezheizhongshoushuangzhongyapodehuanjing,tarenweizhongguofunvyundongdeshimingbixuzuoshuangzhongdenuli,zheijiushi“yifangmiannuliqiuguojiadejiefang,yifangmiannuliqiuzishendejiefang”。yaoqiudeguojiahefunvzishendejiefang,yifangmianyao“renqingzijishiguomindeyifenzi,yingdangzhijiehuojianjiedijiarujiuguoyundong”,“hequantiguomintuanjieqilai,baguoneideeshilichanchu,jiansheyizhongjianquandezhengfu,yidikanglieqiangdeqinlve”,lingyifangmianyao“renqingzijimeiyouziwoderensheng、jishengchongshenghuoderensheng,shirenleidewushangchiru,yingdanghequantinvtongbaotuanjieqilai,bazheizhongwanedeshehuizhidu,fengsuxiguan,chanchujingjin,weinvzizhengdeyigezhenzhengde‘ren’dediwei”。weiledongyuanguangdafunvcanjiajiefangguojia、jiefangzijidegemingxinglie,tazhenduidangshiliuxingyunvzhishijiedeneizhong“zijiagesaomenqianxue,buguantarenwashangshuang”,“qiudezijiwuzhishenghuoshangdeanquanhemanzu”dengsixiangwenti,jinxingleshenkedefenxi,zhimingzheixiexiangfashi“xiaaidegerenzhuyi”debiaoxian。

恒峰app    1926nianqiu,guomindangbeijingtebieshidangbufunvbuzhangliuqingyangzhuchileyicifunvqunzhongdejihui,huishanggongyanlehuaju《fuhuo》。liuqingyangjianglezhongguofunvjiqiannianlaizaifengjianyapoxiasuoguodebeicanshenghuo,hefunvjiefang、nannvpingdengyijijinxingfandifanfengjiandouzhengdedaoli,qilehendadegudongzuoyong。zhangyilanyejijicanjiale《fuhuo》deyanchu。

    liuqingyangshizaoqidegongchandangyuan,tahenqizhongzhangyilan,cengbazhangyilandeqingkuangxianglidazhaofanyingguo,jianyixishoutarudang。lidazhaozeshuo,yinggairangtazaijingshouyifankaoyan。zhangyilanyibaomandezhengzhireqing,feiqinwangshi,riyefenzhan。youyugongzuotaijinzhang,yongnaoguodu,shiyuriyijiantui,tabenlaijiuhenxuruodeshentigengjiaxiaoshoule。jidudelaolei,yinqileyanzhongdebianmi,shenbianderenchangquantaxiuxi,zhaoyishengkankanbing,taquezhizhibuli,haishijingchangyeligongzuodaohenwan,youshitongxiaodadan,shaoshuiyiliangxiaoshihou,youtiqiyigebukoudaichuqule。

    1927nian3yue,liuqingyangfengdiaodaowuhanguominzhengfugongzuo,zhangyilanyoujierenlefunvbuzhangdezhiwu。tayinzhongrenzaijian,zaoyibunengdaobeidashangke,chengleyigeguamingdexuesheng。

    

    1927nianchun,fengxijunfazhangzuolinhebeiyangjunfazhengfuweilechedi“jiaomie”beijingdiqudegemingliliang,caiqugenzongdingshao,paiqianmitandaruneibujishoumaipantudengbeibishouduan,zhenchahesoujiguogongliangdangbeifanglingdaojiguanjiqigeminghuodongdeqingkuang。bingyu4yuechuxialing,diaodongdapibianyizhentanyijiwuzhuangjingcha,zaibeijingjinxingkongqiandedasoubu。

    zhangzuolingongkaidadaibuzhiqian,yourendezhidirenkailieleheimingdan,zhangyilanbangshangyouming。zuzhishangdedaoxiaoxihou,cengshefatongzhizhangyilan,rangtazuohaoyingbiandezhunbei。dangshiyeyouxiepengyouguanxinzhangyilandeanquan,quantalikaibeijingdaowaidiqu,dandoubeitawanyanxiejuele。tayimianzuohaobiyaodeyingbianzhunbei,yimianrengranchenzhediyeyijiridijianshouzhandougangwei。

恒峰app    1927nian4yue6riqiandeyigeqingchen,zhangyilanhaimeiyouqichuang,yihuobianyizhentanturanchuangjinjiamen。dangtacongshuimengzhongbeijiaoxingyihou,jiufaxianzijiyichuzaidirendekongzhizhixia。tazhendingziruo,haobujinghuang。juzhangyilanjialirenhuiyi,direnchuangjinjialihou,zuichutashengcheng“haimeichuanhaoyifu”,jiaoneixieyingquanzaiwaimiandenghou。daitacongwoshichulai,dakaitangwumenshi,jiubeijingtanyashangqiuche,songdaojingchatingjuyaqilai。direnzaidaibuzhangyilandetongshi,zaitadejushidasisoucha,batadexiaojuheshuzhuochoutilidedongxiquanbuchaozoule。houlai,juliuqingyanghuiyi,zhangyilanrenguomindangbeijingtebieshidangbufunvbuzhangzhiwuhou,gongzuofeichangjiji,danyinjingyanbuzu,quefajingti,weijianggongzuojihuadengwenjianshouzanghao,beidirencongtadezhentoudixiasouchu,chenglejitadingzuidewuzheng。

恒峰app    zaidangdepeiyangjiaoyuhedagemingfengbaoxilixiachengzhangqilaidezhangyilan,jingguo20duotianjianyushenghuodemolian,duirenshengdeyiyirenshidegengjiashenke,gemingyizhigengjiajianqiang,tajuexinweigemingersi。suoyi,jinguandirenduitajinxingweixieliyou,yanxingkaoda,quesihaoyegaibianbuletadegemingxinnian,dongyaobuletaduigemingtongzhidezhongzhen。20duotianzhong,direnlvjingshenxunbigong,tameitulubandianjimi,meiyoushirenhetongzhishoudaolianlei。

恒峰app    siyierfangemingzhengbianhou,jiangjieshijimangmidianzhangzuolin,zhuzhangjiangsuobugongchandangrenjixingchujue,yimianhouhuan。4yue28rishangwu10shi,direndesuoweitebiefating,turankaitingpanjue,duilidazhao、zhangyilandeng20weigemingzhelijichuyisixing。dangtianxiawu,tamenbeiyadaoxijiaominxiangjingshikanshousuo,mimichuyijiaoxing。zhangyilanshi20weixunnanzhezhongweiyidenvxing,yeshizuihoushouxingdeyige。zaizhangda3geduoxiaoshidejiaoxingzhixingguochengzhong,zaisishendeweixiemianqian,zhangyilanhaowujuse,shisirugui。

    guanyutadangshishizenyangyingyongdizouxiangxingchangdeqingjing,lidazhaodezhangnvlixinghuazhuishudao: “4yue28ri,zhangyilanbeijiaozoule,taneitianchuandetebiezhengjie、ganjing,toufashudeyehenqizheng……”1927nian4yue29ridebeijing 《shuntianshibao》jizai: “……disanliangcheweinvfanzhangyilanjidengwenhuitongzuo,xiacheshizhangyilanmianxianxise,angshoutingxiongerru……”direnweilezuofandongxuanchuan,zaizhixingjiaoxingzhiqian,jimeigebeihaizhedoupailezhao。congzhaopianshang,womenkandaodeshiyigelinweibujudeyingxiong。tadezitaianxiang,jiandinggangyi,yishuangjiongjiongyoushendeyanjing,duidirenchongmanlechouhenhemieshi,duigemingdeshengliliuluchuwuxiandexinxin。

    zhenghezizhuzhouwanbao、zhongguogongchandangxinwenwang

 
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